• The bonds of the Apple Corporation have 10 years remaining to maturity, with the interest on the bonds paid annually.
• The coupon interest rate is 8%, while the yield to maturity is 9%.
• Calculate the bond’s current market price.
• The bonds issued by the Laptop Corporation have a $1,000 par value, 10 years to maturity, pay 7% coupons, and sell for $985 per bond.
a. Calculate the yield to maturity on the bonds.
b. Assume that the yield to maturity stays constant for the next 3 years. Calculate the price of bonds 3 years from today.
• The bonds of the Nuts Corporation have 9% semi-annual coupons, 8 years to maturity, and an 8.5% YTM.
• Calculate the current price of these bonds.
• The investor has bought two bonds with a face value of $1,000 and 10% annual coupons:
o Bond L matures in 15 years.
o Bond S matures in 1 year.
• Calculate the value of each bond, if the going interest rate is as follows:
• The investor has two bonds in her portfolio: Bond C and Bond Z.
• Each bond matures in 4 years, has a face value of $1,000, and the yield to maturity of 9.6%.
• Bond C pays 10% annual coupons. Bond Z is a zero coupon bond.
• Assuming that the yield to maturity of each bond remains at 9.6% over next 4 years, calculate the price of these bonds at each of the following years to maturity:
Time Years to Maturity Price of Bond C Price of Bond Z
t = 0 n = 4
t = 1 n = 3
t = 2 n = 2
t = 3 n = 1
t = 4 n = 0
• The bonds issued by the Heymann Corporation have 4 years left to maturity.
• The interest on the bonds is paid annually at the 9% coupon rate.
• Calculate the yield to maturity on the company bonds at the following current market prices:
• Last year, Janna bought a $1,000 face value bond with an 11% annual coupon rate and 10 years to maturity.
• At the time of purchase, the bond had an expected yield to maturity of 9.79%.
• If Janna could sell the bond today for $1,060.49, calculate the rate of return she would have earned for the past year.
• The Lifestyle Corporation has issued 3-year bond that pays coupons of 6.1%.
• The coupon payments are made semi-annually, and the market rate of interest is 5.8%.
• Calculate the market value of the bond.
• The Lend Lease Corporation is planning to issue 10-year semi-annual bonds.
• The market rate for such bonds is 8.125%.
• The company needs to raise $1 million and is deciding between issuing 8% coupon bonds or zero coupon bonds.
a. Calculate the price of the 8% coupon bonds.
b. Determine the number of the coupon-paying bonds that will have to be issued by the company.
c. Calculate the price of zero coupon bonds.
d. Determine the number of the zero-coupon bonds that will have to be issued by the company.
• The UAE Treasury has issued 25-year bonds that pay semi-annual coupons at 9.875%.
• The current market rate for the bonds with a similar risk profile is 11%.
a. Calculate the current market value of the bonds.
b. Calculate the price of the bond, if the rates in the market decrease to 9% from the original 11%.
c. Calculate the price of the bond, if the rates in the market increase to 12% from the original 11%.
d. Refer to your answers in part (b). How do interest rate changes affect premium bonds and discount bonds?
e. Suppose the bonds were to mature in 12 years. Show how the interest rate changes in part (b), where the YTM is 9%, affect the price of the bonds.
f. Now assume the bonds were to mature in 12 years. Show how the interest rate changes in part (c), where the YTM is 11%, affect the price of the bonds.
Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.
Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.
This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.
To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.
It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.
Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>