Question 1 The table below shows hypothetical (made-up), average monetary amounts for types of values associated with the eastern white pine, the most common tree in Massachusetts. Type of Value 2021 US Dollars ($) Direct Use Value 5,250 Indirect Use Value 1,600 Option Value 3,800 Bequest Value 2,000 Existence Value 2,000 (a) What is the dollar value of an eastern white pine’s total use value? Show all calculations.
(b) What is the total economic value of the eastern white pine? Show all calculations. Question 2 A small nation island’s gross national income in 2020 was $14 billion. The depreciation of its physical capital for that year was estimated to be $2 billion. A group of environmental economists estimated the value of natural habitats lost to large-scale development projects (primarily construction of highways, motorways, and high-rise buildings) to be around $3 billion.
(a) Based on how most countries currently conduct their national accounting, what was this small nation’s net national income in 2020? Show all calculations.
(b) According to the “ecological economics point of view,” what was this small nation’s net national income in 2020? Show all calculations. Question 3
(a) In one short sentence, explain what is meant here by “the great transition?”
(b) What is the estimated unsubsidized leveled cost range of coal per megawatt hour
(c) List three external costs of coal
(d) Does the above unsubsidized leveled cost of coal include external costs
(e) What is the estimated total cost range (including external costs) of coal per megawatt hour? Show all calculations Question 4 (a) According to the United Nations Environment Program’s (UNEP’s) definition and what you have learned in this class, which of the following are key characteristics of a “green economy?” Circle all that apply.
The rebuilding of natural capital
Growth in income driven by private and public expenditures on low carbon, energy- efficient, low pollution technologies
Less emphasis on inequality (b) Sketch a well-labeled graph that characterizes the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis, and explain why this graph has this characteristic shape. (c) What do you understand by the Porter Hypothesis? (d) What is the key reason the Porter Hypothesis is controversial? (e) According to the Porter Hypothesis, what is the key characteristic of an environmental regulation that allows for the “win-win” opportunity?
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