In the Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 [Cahn, pp. 701-708], Marx identifies four aspects of estranged labor. Briefly explain these four aspects. What is his point, and how does it relate to his argument against capitalism?
A lot hinges on the distinction between proletariat and bourgeoisie in Marx’s political philosophy. How does Marx describe these groups, and the emergence of the bourgeoisie from feudal society? In what sense do the bourgeoisie “forge the weapons that bring death to themselves” [Cahn, p. 717], and what is the relationship between the Communists and the proletarians, according to Marx [ibid, pp. 721-725]?
How does Marx define the difference between a product and a commodity, and between the value (or natural price) of a good and its market price? And, how does the necessity of extracting surplus value affect the price of labor (i.e., the wages that the worker receives)? [See Cahn, pp. 728-737]