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Multiple Choice (3 points each)

- Which of the following correlation coefficients signifies the weakest correlation?

A. -0.28

B. -0.76

C. +0.12

D. +0.66 - If fear of crime initially decreases with age, but then increases with age after age 40, the correlation between age and fear of crime would be
.*_*

A. Positive

B. Negative

C. Significant

D. Curvilinear - A null hypothesis in an ANOVA test will be rejected if
.**__**

A. Variance between groups is significantly larger than variance within groups

B. Variance within groups is significantly larger than variance between groups

C. The F-ratio is less than the critical F-value

D. The observed frequencies are significantly different from the expected frequencies - The shape of the t-distribution begins to more closely resemble the normal curve (z-distribution) as:

A. Degrees of freedom decrease

B. Degrees of freedom increase

C. The obtained t-value increases

D. The standard error of the difference between means decreases

Short Answer. Your answer must be at least 3 sentences long and written in complete sentences (5 points each). - How is the logic of an ANOVA test similar to that of a t-test? Be sure to discuss how the equation for the obtained t-value is similar to the equation for the F-ratio.
- Why can’t we definitely conclude that two strongly correlated variables have a causal relationship? Use an example in your answer.
- Why do we convert sum of squares to mean squares when conducting an ANOVA?
*For all questions involving calculations, you are required to show your work. If you don’t, I will take points off.*

For questions 8-12, use the following scenario.

A researcher is interested in whether juvenile defendants who are released pending adjudication differ in terms of time to disposition compared to juveniles defendants who are detained. Released juveniles (N = 134) had a mean of 4.14 months to disposition (s = 3.77). Detained juveniles (N = 68) had a mean of 3.62 months to disposition (s = 4.25). Assuming equal population variances, conduct a t-test. - State the null and research hypotheses. Write in full and complete sentences (4 points).

Null:

Research:

- Calculate the standard error of the difference between means (4 points).
- Calculate the obtained t-value (5 points).
- Calculate the degrees of freedom and using a significance level of .01, obtain a critical t-value (3 points).
- Make a decision regarding the null hypothesis, explain how you came to this decision, and interpret your findings (5 points).

For questions 13-16, use the following scenario.

A researcher uses the JDCC (Juvenile Defendants in Criminal Courts) data to examine whether juvenile offenders charged with property crimes differ in terms of total number of charges compared to juvenile offenders charged with violent crimes. She conducts the t-test in SPSS and is willing to take a 5% risk of a false positive.

Independent Samples Test

Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances t-test for Equality of Means

F Sig. t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower Upper

Total number of charges Equal variances assumed 34.081 .000 4.761 1293 .000 1.498 .315 .881 2.116

Equal variances not assumed 7.041 1287.925 .000 1.498 .213 1.081 1.916

- State the null and research hypotheses. Write in full and complete sentences (4 points).

Null:

Research:

- What are the results of Levene’s test? (Note: do not just say pass or fail/reject or fail to reject. Say what we can or cannot assume) (3 points).
- State the obtained t-value for the t-test (3 points).
- Make a decision regarding the null hypothesis, explain how you made your decision, and interpret your findings (5 points).

For questions 17-26, use the following scenario.

In a sample of juvenile offenders sent to boot camp, a juvenile probation officer is examining the relationship between number of prior police contacts before participating in the boot camp and number of offenses after participating in the boot camp. Calculate the correlation coefficient and conduct a hypothesis test to examine whether there is a significant relationship between number of prior police contacts and number of subsequent offenses.

Number of Prior Police Contacts (X) Number of Offenses (Y)

3 2

4 5

7 4

1 0

0 1

0 3

5 4

3 5

- State the null and research hypotheses. Write in full and complete sentences (4 points).

Null:

Research:

- Calculate the correlation coefficient for the relationship between number of prior police contacts and number of offenses (5 points).

Number of Prior Police Contacts (X) Number of Offenses (Y) XY x2 y2

3 2

4 5

7 4

1 0

0 1

0 3

5 4

3 5

x = y = xy = x2 = y2 = - State the strength and the direction of the relationship between number of prior police contacts and number of offenses (4 points).
- Calculate the coefficient of determination. What percentage of the variation in number of offenses can be explained by number of prior police contacts? (4 points).
- Calculate the obtained t-value (5 points).
- Calculate the degrees of freedom and using a significance level of .05, obtain a critical t-value (3 points).
- Make a decision regarding the null hypothesis, explain how you came to this decision, and interpret your findings (5 points).
- Regardless of the conclusion of the hypothesis test, the juvenile probation officer wishes to create a regression line and use the number of prior police contacts to predict the number of subsequent offenses. Calculate the slope coefficient for this regression line (5 points).

Number of Prior Police Contacts (X) Number of Offenses (Y) XY x2

3 2

4 5

7 4

1 0

0 1

0 3

5 4

3 5

x = y = xy = x2 = - Calculate the y-intercept for the regression line (4 points).
- What is the predicted number of offenses for a boot camp participant who had 2 prior police contacts before being sent to the boot camp? (3 points).

Compelling correspondence is essential to the achievement all things considered but since of the changing idea of the present working environments, successful correspondence turns out to be more troublesome, and because of the numerous impediments that will permit beneficiaries to acknowledge the plan of the sender It is restricted. Misguided judgments.In spite of the fact that correspondence inside the association is rarely completely open, numerous straightforward arrangements can be executed to advance the effect of these hindrances.

Concerning specific contextual analysis, two significant correspondence standards, correspondence channel determination and commotion are self-evident. This course presents the standards of correspondence, the act of general correspondence, and different speculations to all the more likely comprehend the correspondence exchanges experienced in regular daily existence. The standards and practices that you learn in this course give the premise to additionally learning and correspondence.

This course starts with an outline of the correspondence cycle, the method of reasoning and hypothesis. In resulting modules of the course, we will look at explicit use of relational connections in close to home and expert life. These incorporate relational correspondence, bunch correspondence and dynamic, authoritative correspondence in the work environment or relational correspondence. Rule of Business Communication In request to make correspondence viable, it is important to follow a few rules and standards. Seven of them are fundamental and applicable, and these are clear, finished, brief, obliging, right, thought to be, concrete. These standards are frequently called 7C for business correspondence. The subtleties of these correspondence standards are examined underneath: Politeness Principle: When conveying, we should build up a cordial relationship with every individual who sends data to us.

To be inviting and polite is indistinguishable, and politeness requires an insightful and amicable activity against others. Axioms are notable that gracious “pay of graciousness is the main thing to win everything”. Correspondence staff ought to consistently remember this. The accompanying standards may assist with improving courtesy:Preliminary considering correspondence with family All glad families have the mystery of progress. This achievement originates from a strong establishment of closeness and closeness. Indeed, through private correspondence these cozy family connections become all the more intently. Correspondence is the foundation of different affiliations, building solid partners of obedient devotion, improving family way of life, and assisting with accomplishing satisfaction (Gosche, p. 1). In any case, so as to keep up an amicable relationship, a few families experienced tumultuous encounters. Correspondence in the family is an intricate and alluring marvel. Correspondence between families isn’t restricted to single messages between families or verbal correspondence.

It is a unique cycle that oversees force, closeness and limits, cohesiveness and flexibility of route frameworks, and makes pictures, topics, stories, ceremonies, rules, jobs, making implications, making a feeling of family life An intelligent cycle that makes a model. This model has passed ages. Notwithstanding the view as a family and family automatic framework, one of the greatest exploration establishments in between family correspondence centers around a family correspondence model. Family correspondence model (FCP) hypothesis clarifies why families impart in their own specific manner dependent on one another ‘s psychological direction. Early FCP research established in media research is keen on how families handle broad communications data. Family correspondence was perceived as an exceptional scholastic exploration field by the National Communications Association in 1989. Family correspondence researchers were at first impacted by family research, social brain science, and relational hypothesis, before long built up the hypothesis and began research in a family framework zeroed in on a significant job. Until 2001, the primary issue of the Family Communication Research Journal, Family Communication Magazine, was given. Family correspondence is more than the field of correspondence analysts in the family. Examination on family correspondence is normally done by individuals in brain science, humanism, and family research, to give some examples models. However, as the popular family correspondence researcher Leslie Baxter stated, it is the focal point of this intelligent semantic creation measure making the grant of family correspondence special. In the field of in-home correspondence, correspondence is normally not founded on autonomous messages from one sender to one beneficiary, yet dependent on the dynamic interdependency of data shared among families It is conceptualized. The focal point of this methodology is on the shared trait of semantic development inside family frameworks. As such, producing doesn’t happen in vacuum, however it happens in a wide scope of ages and social exchange.

Standards are rules end up being followed when performing work to agree to a given objective. Hierarchical achievement relies significantly upon compelling correspondence. So as to successfully impart, it is important to follow a few standards and rules. Coming up next are rules to guarantee powerful correspondence: clearness: lucidity of data is a significant guideline of correspondence. For beneficiaries to know the message plainly, the messages ought to be sorted out in a basic language. To guarantee that beneficiaries can without much of a stretch comprehend the importance of the message, the sender needs to impart unmistakably and unhesitatingly so the beneficiary can plainly and unquestionably comprehend the data.>

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