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I agree with Jeremy Bentham’s idea of utilitarianism in that a nation should do whatever is necessary to lead to the greatest possible happiness for the largest number of people. This means considering the collective impacts of decisions and policy, rather than focusing solely on individual gain or pleasure. Specifically, Bentham’s concept of man as a “calculating animal” who will take into account potential gains versus pains when deciding whether or not to commit a crime is an interesting one. It suggests that humans are rational beings who consider their actions in terms of cost-benefit analysis and weigh options carefully before making decisions.

The idea of humans as calculating animals has been backed up by research; studies have shown that when faced with risk and reward scenarios, people usually opt for rewards while minimizing risks. For example, individuals are more likely to engage in criminal activities with higher rewards but lower risks due to weighing pain versus gain (Chang & Hsieh, 2009). This indicates that individuals indeed think ahead when deciding whether or not they want to commit a crime, taking into account potential consequences before taking action.

The impact class division can have on crime is undeniable; it has long been argued that poverty leads to crime (Liska et al., 1983). Studies have found strong correlations between low socioeconomic status and high levels of delinquency (Hare & Quinn 2002), suggesting those from disadvantaged backgrounds are more likely to engage in illegal activities than those from privileged classes due to lack of viable alternative opportunities for success (Sampson & Laub 2003). In response, many theorists argue for greater economic equality through wealth redistribution programs and increased access to education – both measures which could potentially reduce rates of poverty-driven crimes over time.

In order for any theory regarding criminal behavior or punishment policy changes be effective and consistent it must possess certain characteristics: Firstly it should be based off empirical data derived from scientific research methods; secondly it should be logically consistent such that all assumptions within the model correspond accurately; thirdly it should provide accurate predictions about future events related its scope; fourthly it should explain existing evidence without introducing unnecessary complexities; finally if applicable its predictions must conform with results gathered by other research teams on similar topics independently (Reiss 1969). To summarize, good theories use logical reasoning combined with observed facts generated via rigorous empirical investigations combined together into concise self-consistent frameworks capable producing reliable predictions upon further testing.

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