Pathophysiology of Parkinson Disease:
Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that is caused by a loss of neurons in the substantia nigra. This leads to an imbalance in dopamine, which plays an important role in regulating motor functions such as voluntary movements and posture. The exact cause of PD remains unknown; however, it has been linked to environmental toxins, genetic predisposition and certain medical conditions. Genetic mutations can also lead to PD. In addition, inflammation within the brain has been associated with PD due to deposits of Lewy bodies in affected areas.
The clinical manifestations associated with PD vary depending on severity and stage of progression. Common symptoms include tremor at rest, slow movement and rigidity or stiffness throughout body parts including limbs, face and neck muscles. Patients may also experience impaired balance and coordination as well as changes in speech patterns such as slurred words or speaking too fast or slow than normal rate. Other cognitive deficits like depression, dementia and psychosis have been observed in some patients suffering from PD.