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Pathophysiology of Parkinson Disease:
Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that is caused by a loss of neurons in the substantia nigra. This leads to an imbalance in dopamine, which plays an important role in regulating motor functions such as voluntary movements and posture. The exact cause of PD remains unknown; however, it has been linked to environmental toxins, genetic predisposition and certain medical conditions. Genetic mutations can also lead to PD. In addition, inflammation within the brain has been associated with PD due to deposits of Lewy bodies in affected areas.

Clinical Manifestations:
The clinical manifestations associated with PD vary depending on severity and stage of progression. Common symptoms include tremor at rest, slow movement and rigidity or stiffness throughout body parts including limbs, face and neck muscles. Patients may also experience impaired balance and coordination as well as changes in speech patterns such as slurred words or speaking too fast or slow than normal rate. Other cognitive deficits like depression, dementia and psychosis have been observed in some patients suffering from PD.

Evaluation (Diagnostics):
A diagnosis for Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be established through a combination of physical exam findings along with laboratory tests including imaging studies (CT scan/MRI). Clinical conditions present during the examination should be taken into account such as resting tremors or bradykinesia that are characteristic signs for PD but not always present . Neuropsychological testing should also be done along with blood tests to rule out other neurological disorders like multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer’s disease that could mimic similar symptoms experienced by patients diagnosed with PD.

Treatment (Pharmacological & Non-pharmacological):
The primary goal when treating Parkinson’s disease is to improve quality of life while minimizing any adverse effects associated with medications used for treatment purposes. The most common drugs prescribed are levodopa/carbidopa combinations which help increase levels of dopamine released into the body thus relieving symptoms related to motor functioning impairment present during mild cases of the condition). Other pharmacological treatments include MAO-B inhibitors which work similarly but without causing unwanted side-effects seen when using levodopa/carbidopa combinations . Non-pharmaceutical interventions may also be recommended for individuals suffering from this disorder such as physical exercise programs, occupational therapy sessions and dietary modifications aimed at improving overall wellbeing on both mental health aspects along physical capabilities affected by this pathology

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