“Faithfulness to form, literary or otherwise, is illusory”
BACKGROUND: ”Intertextuality refers to the interdependent ways in which texts stand in relation to one another (as well as to the culture at large) to produce meaning. They can influence each other, be derivative of, parody, reference, quote, contrast with, build on, draw from, or even inspire each other. Knowledge does not exist in a vacuum, and neither does literature,” writes Richard Norquist.
In the Broadway musical Hamilton, author Lin-Manuel Miranda fuses musical elements from a wide array of influences, quoting liberally from hip hop, rap, musical theatre, the 1960s British Invasion, Gilbert and Sullivan operettas and many more. Additionally, historical documents like the Federalist Papers, Biblical scripture and personal correspondence find their way into the musical’s lyrics. While Ron Chernow’s biography of Alexander Hamilton may serve as biographical source material, Miranda endeavors to craft an intertextual experience as a piece of theatre, wherein the many elements he cites allow him to examine American history from a modern point of view, riddled with references to other texts, artistic movements and political points of view.
PROMPT: Using the song (THE STORY OF TONIGHT) assigned to you in our zoom class, research and examine the intertextual references, both explicit and implicit, in Miranda’s writing. How does the author meld musical and historical information within this particular song? Why does he choose to reference the particular artists which inspire his lyrics and music? And, perhaps, most important, to what end does Miranda’s intertextual approach craft a message about the modern United States?
PART C- “EQUIVALENCY OF MEANING IN FORMS” , THE SPECTRE OF FIDELITY , AND THE PROCESS OF ADAPTATION (4 page maximum)
BACKGROUND: “Faithfulness to form, literary or otherwise, is illusory…The style of a literary work is its body but not its soul. And it is not impossible for the artistic soul to manifest itself through another incarnation.” – Andre Bazin
In class, we’ve studied Bazin’s position that the adaptation process often necessitates changes in a narrative while maintaining an equivalence of meaning in its new form. Further, we’ve discussed that fidelity to source material is not a requirement in crafting a narrative to fit a different medium. Consequently, plot, structure, theme, setting, genre and other elements are subject to alteration in any adaptation.
For instance, the movie version of The Hunger Games’ opening scenes defined the play world and the audience’s relationship to the film in a manner quite differently than Susan Collins’ first person narrative. Additionally, the film Adaptation crafted an entirely new narrative while attempting to investigate the core concept Kaufman found in The Orchid Thief.
PROMPT: Using a film adaptation derived from a novel, short story, comic book property or other source material of your choosing, detail how the film does or does not remain faithful to the work upon which it is based.
Address the following issues:
Is this a literal, traditional or radical adaptation? In what way? Does the film attempt to retain “an equivalence in meaning,” the core “essence,” of the original work? In what way might the original serve as a palimpsest, laying its foundation for the new version? Examine and detail the particulars of the “mise-en-scene” in the cinematic adaptation. Do the film’s visual and narrative constraints adhere to or expand upon the source material? How does the film utilize the tools of the adaptation process? Specifically, in what way does this film rely upon compression, expansion, correction, updating or superimposition in comparison to the source material? What might scholars such as Stamm, Hutcheon, Diamond, Chatman, Huwiler, McFarlane and Darwin make of your findings? Choose three scholars from that list of authors and include at least one quote from each of their works as pertains to your thesis. Cite any research as you would in a paper- with a WORKS CITED addendum in APA or MLA format.
A Very Little Extra credit: 75 words or less Follow the link provided to a series of subway photographs taken by a young Stanley Kubrick. Choose one photo and a corresponding image from 2001: A Space Odyssey in which environment and character are similarly framed. How does the photo presage the manner in which Kubrick would go on to investigate the relationship between humans, technology and environment? Include the cut and pasted photo into the exam. For reference, this paragraph is seventy five words!
Our customer support team is here to answer your questions. Ask us anything!