1. Prevention Layer: This layer of homeland defense involves activities that aim to deter and detect threats before they occur. This includes intelligence gathering, infrastructure protection, border security, immigration controls, and risk-based assessments (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2020).
2. Protection Layer: This layer focuses on mitigating the effects of a threat should it occur. Examples include increased physical security measures for vital infrastructure (e.g., airports or nuclear power plants), enhanced cyber security measures to protect against hackers, and improved response capabilities to reduce the impact of terrorist attacks or natural disasters (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2020).