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Parochialism, ethnocentrism, and pluralism are three distinct views of culture that help explain how individuals interact with different cultures.While all three views can be seen as ways to categorize cultural attitudes and behaviors, they also differ in important ways.

Parochialism is defined by Oxford Reference as “the narrow-minded concern with or attachment to one’s own group at the expense of others” (Rothwell & Stockley, 2017). This view suggests that individuals limit themselves to their own norms, values, beliefs, and practices without engaging with those from other cultures. Parochialism often involves a lack of respect for other cultures and a tendency towards close-mindedness when it comes to unfamiliar customs or traditions. It leads individuals to become rigid in their thinking and behavior instead of being open to new experiences or perspectives. As such, parochialism promotes an us vs them mentality which perpetuates negative stereotypes about people from different backgrounds while failing to recognize the value of diversity within society.

Ethnocentrism is closely related yet distinct from parochialism in important ways. According to The SAGE Encyclopedia of Anthropology (2018), ethnocentrism is “the belief in the fundamental superiority of one’s own ethnic group or culture over others” (Vitebsky & Giller 2004). Ethnocentrists evaluate cultural behavior based on their own standards rather than those held by members of other ethnic groups. Thus it leads individuals down a path where they believe that their values are better than those belonging to other societies or even those within their own group who adhere differently than what is considered the norm for them personally. Unlike parochialists who may simply avoid contact with foreign customs altogether; ethnocentric people often actively discredit outside influences as inferior while promoting only what conforms to their individual values system . Additionally since this attitude implies judgement it can lead others feel oppressed if they do not meet its standards thereby creating serious tension between societies and potentially resulting in hostility between ethnic groups over time if left unchecked.

Pluralistic attitudes represent an opposite approach comparedto parochialistm and ethnocentrism which seekswto embrace cultural differences ratherthan discriminate against them(Bagchi et al., 2018). Pluralists integrate diversity into everyday lifeby actively exploringand valuingothercultureswhilerecognizingtheir own biasesandprejudices(Hall & Hall,.2019). Ratherthan making judgementsaboutwhatis betteror worsebasedonone’sownviewpointpluraliststimeto learnfromotherpeoplesperspectiveswhichleads toelevatethemalltogetherthroughmutuallybeneficialoutcomeswhilealsofosteringgreaterrespectamonggroups internationallevelstooasit encouragespeopletotakeaninterestintheirneighborsregardlessofbackgroundororiginsforthebettermentoftheworldasawhole(Seiter&Weingroff2010).ThisapproachencouragesopencommunicationbetweencommunitieswhereconsensualunderstandingisexpectedratherthantolerationsomethingthatparoichalitsmandethnocerssimplycannotacceptortolearntheycanbothcoexistinpeaceandharmonyastherearesufficientllacksofdifferencesbetweenthemtoallowdiversitytoprevailoverdisciminationandyetstillretainenoughsimilaritiessotoensurethatcompatibilityisachievableonthelongrunbecomingmoreimportantnowadaysasdepictedinrecenteventssuchashowcountriesareworkingtogetherotrespontotheCoronaviruuspandemielettinggoofseveralnationaldifferencestopursuemoreglobalconcernssuchassavinglivesornpromoting moreequalitariangoalsaroundtheworldwhenitcomestomanagingcertainissuesastheresimplenomoretimetofocusonshallowdifferencesifhumanityisalreadyintoahigherriskofthesamemealstreryoneseemsbeheadedbutthisdoesnotmeanthatculturesshouldbedilutedbyacommonsettriewithoutharmonyinsteadthemutualrespectmustbepreservedbetweneverydaylifesothereisanunderstandingofwhattheothergroupfeelsneedsorsupportsalonethussustainingculturalintegrityforabetterfuturewithmanyvoicesheardandsupportedinsteadjustasingleonepredominant outlook

In conclusion then ,parochondralibrm representsa closedmindeedprespective based on prejudieec wicdh lacks awarenessofthedifferences amongstgroups< ethnocemtricum seeks too impose ones ove viesws onto otthers without regard otfnespectiog ther infividuality culd slespiritwil e whilst plulalimsm strives towards understanding hoeewver unique the perspectivbe nay be ra tehr than imposing any pre conceived judgements upon another

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