Sample Solution

How, exactly, do most chemotherapy drugs target cancer cells?
Most chemotherapy drugs work by targeting the rapidly dividing cells in a tumor. These drugs interfere with cell division and growth, making it difficult for cancerous cells to replicate. Some chemotherapy drugs are designed to directly inhibit the reproduction of cancer cells. Other types of chemo work by damaging DNA or other cellular structures within the tumor cell itself, thereby disrupting its ability to function and reproduce.

The effects on normal body functions vary depending on the type of drug used in treatment. Some kill only certain kinds of tumors while others act more widely throughout the body and can also affect healthy tissue if they reach it before being cleared away by the immune system or organ systems like the liver and kidneys. This is why common side effects include nausea, hair loss, fatigue and anemia – these are all signs that healthy tissue is being affected as well as tumors.

Why do these drugs also produce the side-effects listed?
Chemotherapy has many toxic side effects because its ultimate purpose is to damage both cancerous and healthy cells in order to stop their growth or replication before they spread further through your body. Most chemotherapies work by targeting rapidly growing cells regardless whether they’re healthy or not; this means that any type of normal cell division (like skin turnover) will be impaired when exposed to high doses of chemo medications over time. This disruption results in side effects such as skin rashes/irritation/inflammation, fatigue, nausea/vomiting due to damage done to intestine lining etc., weakness from lowered red blood cell count caused by bone marrow suppression etc., hair loss from damaged hair follicles etc.. However modern research has lead scientists towards understanding how specific features of molecules can be targeted so that their toxicity could be reduced significantly .

What specifically does cyanide do to which process that makes it harmful?
Cyanide works at a cellular level to disrupt energy production within a given cell leading ultimately death of said individual cell(s). Cyanide binds reversibly with iron atoms inside cytochrome c oxidase (an enzyme present particularly in mitochondria) thereby blocking electron transport chain reaction resulting in no ATP production within each mitochondrion (which are known as powerhouses because they generate most amount energy needed for human bodies metabolism). This inhibits RNA transcription & protein synthesis leading finally towards apoptosis i:e programmed death specifically induced via absence of ATP required for sustaining life processes happening inside living organisms including humans!

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