List the core concepts we discussed in class. How do these compare to the four themes of physiology identified by your textbook author in chapter 1?
Explain and provide examples of specificity, competition, and saturation in proteins.
Compare osmolarity and tonicity.
Compare diffusion, facilitated diffusion and active transport.
Compare the general sequence of events that follow lipophilic and lipophobic signal molecule binding to receptors.
Describe in detail how baroreceptor reflex demonstrates the core concept of homeostasis.
Explain how the Starling forces regulate bulk flow in the capillaries using the core concept of flow-down-gradients.
Explain the sliding filament theory of contraction.
Explain the Frank-Starling law of the heart.
Describe the conductions of electrical signals through the heart.
Describe the parts of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and explain how these electrical events are related to the mechanical events of the cardiac cycle.
Compare the structure and functions of the major regions of the nephron.
Discuss the effect of renin, angiotensin, and aldosterone on blood pressure. (Be thorough, specific, and accurate).
Explain how the vertical concentration gradient in the medulla and the concentration of vasopressin influences the volume and osmolarity of urine produced.
Explain the four stages of external respiration and identify the gradients (driving force) and resistance of each stage.
Compare tidal volume, expiratory reserve volume, inspiratory reserve volume, residual volume, vital capacity, total lung capacity, inspiratory capacity, and functional residual capacity. List the average values for each volume and capacity.
Discuss how changes in temperature, PCO2, pH and 2,3 DPG concentration shift the oxygen dissociation curve.
Compare the synthesis, storage transport of location of receptors and cellular mechanism of action of catecholamine and steroid hormones.
Compare the synthesis, storage transport of location of receptors and cellular mechanism of action thyroid and peptide hormones.
Compare the synthesis, storage transport of location of receptors and cellular mechanism of action peptide and steroid hormones.
Discuss the role of the Na+K+ pump in maintaining the membrane potential of a cell.
Compare the terms depolarization, hyperpolarization, and repolarization.
Compare graded and action potentials.
Discuss the role of Na+ and K+ channels in generating an action potential.
Compare nicotinic cholinergic, muscarinic cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors.